Carbon dioxide (CO2)

The most widespread and well-known greenhouse gas, which is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and other human activities, such as deforestation and biomass burning. CO2 contributes to the greenhouse effect, which leads to global warming and climate change. Reducing carbon dioxide emissions is crucial for environmental protection and mitigating the negative impacts of climate change.

Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is just one of several greenhouse gases with global warming potential (GWP). CO2 equivalent or CO2e represents all the molecules that capture heat and warm our atmosphere, not just carbon dioxide. It is the unit that FUERGY uses for the calculation of the achieved emission reduction in line with ESG reporting standards.

Carbon neutrality

Carbon neutrality is a balance between carbon emission and absorption from the atmosphere via capture devices or offsetting measures. Simply put, it is the amount of greenhouse gasses that we release into the atmosphere as a result of our activities, balanced by what we can remove or compensate for. Achieving carbon neutrality involves reducing emissions through energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, and other ecological measures, as well as investing in carbon capture and storage projects.

Certified ancillary service

The contractual provision of regulation electricity (positive or negative) by an entity that meets the technical and commercial conditions determined by TSO regulations. A contractual commitment to the minimum availability of regulation electricity is required.

According to the activation speed necessary for the device providing regulation electricity, we can divide certified ancillary services into:

  • Primary, otherwise known as Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR for short), with activation under 30 seconds,

  • Secondary, otherwise known as automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve (aFRR for short), with activation up to 300 seconds, and

  • Tertiary, otherwise known as manual Frequency Restoration Reserve (mFRR for short) with activation up to 750 seconds.

Financial rewards are offered for the regulation electricity provided, as well as for availability even when regulation electricity is not provided. In the event that the TSO detects an entity's inability to comply with the agreed availability period, the entity is fined.

Certified ancillary service is mainly provided by entities burning fossil-fuels, such as heating plants and diesel generators. Green providers of certified ancillary services can be transfer tanks or entities burning biomass, and now also battery storage systems.


Often referred to as an inverter, a Converter is used to transform direct current into alternating current. It converts energy produced from renewable sources, such as solar panels or wind turbines, into more commonly used alternating current electricity.


A counter-deviation is a deviation that occurs in the power system as a response to an initial deviation, with the aim of restoring the balance between electricity production and consumption. When one part of the system experiences a deviation, such as an excess or shortage of electricity, another part of the system can create a counter-deviation to compensate for this difference and stabilize the system.

Counter-deviations are an important tool in power system management because they allow operators to quickly respond to unexpected changes in electricity supply and demand.